Bharat State Emission (BS)

What is BS Engine?

Bharat stage emission (BS) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from compression ignition engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles. … The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000.

Generation of  BS Engine:

1991- Mass Emission Norms
          They came into an effort for petrol vehicles in 1991 and diesel vehicles in 1992.
1992- Revision of Mass Emission Norms
          Fitment of catalytic converters was made mandatory in vehicles sold in meters.
2000- BS-1 Norms 
          India adopts the new norms in line with international Euro-1 emission norms.
2005- BS-2 Norms
          These first came into the effort in three meters followed by its application on a nationwide basis.
2010- BS-3 Norms
          These norms were first brought into the effort in 11 Cities.
2017- BS-4 Norms
          The sulfur contents in the fuels were brought down by 100 ppm and 300 ppm in petrol and diesel respectively.
2020- BS-6 Norms
          It is said that NOx Emission will be brought down by 68% in diesel and 25% in petrol cars.

PPM – Parts Per Million 

         In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
One gram in 1000ml is 1000ppm and one thousand of a gram (0.001g) in 1000ml is one ppm. One thousand of a gram is one milligram and 1000ml is one liter so that 1ppm = 1mg per liter = mg/liter

BS-4 Engine;

         BS stands for Bharat Stage and is set by the central pollution control board. … More the number assigned, less air polluting the engine or fewer pollutants, the engine is releasing. In India, the BS 4 Engines are applied for the NCR and some other cities while BS 3 Engines are applied nationwide.

BS-6 Engine;

        BS6 compliant petrol vehicles are required to be 25 percent cleaner by reducing NOx (Nitrogen Oxide) numbers from 80mg/km to 60mg/km. For diesel, the BS6 norms aim at reducing three pollutants — HC (Hydrocarbons) + NOx, PM (Particulate Matter) and NOx reduction by 43, 68 and 82 percent respectively.
Fuel TypePollutant GasesBS6 (BSVI)BS4 (BSIV)
Petrol Passenger VehicleNitrogen Oxide (NOx) Limit<60mg><80mg>
Particulate Matter (PM) Limit<4.5mg/km
Diesel Passenger VehicleNitrogen Oxide (NOx) Limit<80mg><250mg>
Particulate Matter (PM) Limit<4.5mg/km<25mg>
HC + NOx170mg/km<300mg>

What are BSI, BSII, BSIII, BSIV and BSVI Emission Norms?

These are emission standards set by the governing body Bharat Safety Emission Standard (BSEB) to regulate the output of pollutants from vehicles plying on the road. The Central Pollution Control Board, under the Ministry of Environment and Forest and Climate Change, sets the permissible pollution levels and timeline to implement the same by vehicle manufacturers.

Emission StandardReferenceYear of Introduction
India 2000EURO 12000
Bharat Stage II (BS2)EURO 22005
Bharat Stage III (BS3)EURO 32010
Bharat Stage IV (BS4)EURO 42017
Bharat Stage V (BS5)EURO 5To be skipped
Bharat Stage VI (BS6)EURO 62020

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